Mastering Freestyle Technique

Mastering Freestyle Technique

Freestyle, the most dynamic of swimming strokes, demands a meticulous approach to technique for optimal speed. To enhance your child’s freestyle efficiency, start with a thorough examination of the foundational elements. Ensure your child maintains a horizontal body position with the head in the correct position, reducing drag and maximizing forward movement. Focusing on proper shoulder rotation, arm recovery and hand entry, along with a strong flutter kick, sets the stage for efficient and speedy freestyle.

Correct Stroke Pattern

Understanding the correct stroke pattern is important to swim more efficiently in freestyle. The arm pull pattern and correct hand pitch at each stage of the underwater pull will play a major role in technique improvement. Incorporation of drills by the coach that emphasize correct arm mechanics, encouraging a high elbow catch and an effective pull is important. Implement leg-focused exercises to enhance the flutter kick, promoting propulsion without excessive energy expenditure. Gradually introduce interval training to build endurance, a key factor in sustaining speed over longer distances.

The Art of Breathing

Efficient breathing is a linchpin in the quest for speed in freestyle. Teach your child the art of rhythmic breathing, synchronising inhalation and exhalation with arm strokes. Emphasize learning to breathe on both sides of the body. Introduce hypoxic training, gradually increasing the duration between breaths during practice to enhance lung capacity and endurance. A well-mastered breathing technique translates to sustained speed and race-day success.

Our Stroke Model and Skills Videos provide a clear visual representation of correct technique, allowing swimmers to see the stroke movements and body position throughout different stages of the stroke. These videos come with commentary and annotations from former Australian Head Coach Leigh Nugent and provide families with the most up-to-date details around technique in freestyle and other competitive strokes.

Basic Mechanics of Freestyle Kick & Backstroke Kick

Basic Mechanics of Freestyle Kick & Backstroke Kick

The technique for freestyle kick and backstroke kick is based on very similar mechanical principals for each of these strokes.

Key points:

  • The legs are extended.
  • Significant plantar flexion of the feet is an advantage in generating propulsion.
  • The leg swings from the hip.
  • The muscle contractions which drive the leg movements have their origin in the lower core.
  • The amplitude of the kick (as a guide) should be within the margins of the cross-sectional range created by the body.
  • The ankles remain loose at all times, so the feet flap up and down like they are hinged.
  • Engagement of the gluteus, back muscles, hip extensors and hamstrings during the recovery phase.
  • Engagement of the core muscles, abdominals, hip flexors and quads during the extension phase.
  • Continuous oscillating action.
  • Minimal surface disturbance.

It is vital that children are taught the correct kicking action from a young age. If we come across children who haven’t been taught in such a way then we must address the imperfection immediately.

Check out the Freestyle and Backstroke Technique Videos now available. These videos have been produced by Leigh Nugent, 2004 & 2012 Australian Olympic Team Head Coach, and there are no other videos available like this that will simply explain to coaches, parents and swimmers the correct technique to use in freestyle and backstroke.

Effective Kicking

We need to develop effective kicking in our swimmers not only for propulsion but also for stability or anchoring. The anchoring effect is more related to freestyle and backstroke where we rotate and the kick assists by stabilizing our lower body, this allows our arms through the upper body to apply greater leverage for propulsion.

It must be understood by all that the recovery phase of the kick (upbeat for freestyle and down-beat for backstroke) is performed with a straight knee. When the heel is at the highest point of the kick in freestyle and the lowest point in backstroke, the knee is then flexed and the drive of the power phase of the kick is executed. The leg is rapidly extended during this action.

When the leg completes the power phase the recovery phase begins immediately.

Both phases are propulsive.

When swimmers swim backstroke with their knees breaking the surface it is down to the fact that they haven’t got their legs straight at the knee during the recovery phase of the kick.

Take the time to teach all swimmers to automate the correct mechanics for their kicking technique.

Don’t forget to check out the Freestyle and Backstroke Technique Videos.

Late Breathing in Freestyle

Late Breathing in Freestyle

We frequently see in freestyle during the breathing phase swimmers breathing late in relation to the arm cycle. Whilst this isn’t a cataclysmic issue it can create complications for the swimmer particularly under race conditions and during demanding training sets.

The two main areas where this habit can adversely affect performance are:

1. The late movement or rotation of the head results in a disconnect with the timing of the arms and the rotation of the shoulders and hips, which disturbs the rhythm of the stroke and some loss of efficiency.

2. There is a reduction in the length of time that the mouth can be open for inhalation, resulting in a lower volume of airflow and as a consequence the gas exchange in the lungs is compromised.

The ideal timing of the rotation of the head for breathing is; the head rotates as the propelling arm commences the push phase of the arm pull, which is in synchronization with the upward rotation of the shoulder on the breathing side. Inhalation begins just prior to the completion of the push phase and the during the commencement of the recovery of the arm. Inhalation continues through the first half of the recovery and as the hand or arm passes the shoulder the head commences its counter rotation and finishing in the neutral position with the eyes looking after which the exhalation begins.

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Rotating the head to breathe with this timing will provide an optimal period to complete the inhalation. If this period length is shortened by turning the head late, then the opportunity to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide becomes limited, which is highly likely to adversely affect performance.

A drill which can help create to correct breathing timing is “single arm opposite side breathing drill” is the “Opposite Side Breathing Drill”. This drill has the swimmer for instance stroking with their left arm but breathing to their right, with the rotation of the head coordinated with the entry and extension of the left arm (stroke with the left and breathe to the right). The right arm is held stationary by the right hip. If you have someone afflicted with late breathing try this drill and see if it helps.


Freestyle Breathing Swimming Tips

Freestyle Breathing Swimming Tips

Freestyle is the first stroke that most children learn and is the fastest of the four competitive strokes.  Listed below are a number of tips on how to improve your breathing in freestyle. If you are after more comprehensive information on freestyle and breathing check out the Freestyle Stroke Model by 2004 & 2012 Head Olympic Coach, Leigh Nugent.

What is the correct head position when swimming freestyle?

The head should be in a neutral position with the neck relaxed and eyes looking straight down. When breathing the head rotates through the long axis of the spine, to the side, maintaining a low position, with one eye in the water and one eye out of the water.

Should I breathe on the first stroke?

After streamlining off the wall on a start or turn, begin your first freestyle stroke just before your head and body breaks the surface.  Swimmers who breathe on this first stroke will often slow themselves down at a time where they do not really need a breathe.  Take your first breathe on your second or third stroke rather than your first stroke.

When do I breathe? 

There are many different ways of explaining to someone when to breathe in freestyle.  Turn your head to breathe on your right hand side as the finger tips of your left hand enters the water following the recovery.  This provides an excellent reference point for for freestyle breathing for swimmers of all ages.  Your head should continue to turn to breathe as the front or opposite hand is extending forward.

How often should I breathe? 

Swimmers breathe every 2, 3 or 4 strokes in general.  Most coaches will teach young swimmers to breath every 4 strokes on their left side and every 4 strokes on their right side, so that they develop both sides of the body.  Work with your coach to develop the best breathing pattern for you.

Should I breathe in the last 5 metres? 

The answer is no, in both training and competition.  Whatever you do in training will happen in a race, so if you want to hold your breathe for the last 5 metres, particularly in a close race then practice it every time you finish a lap in training.

I am having trouble breathing after only a short distance of swimming.  What am I doing wrong? 

Many adult swimmers and young children have this problem.  It is primarily caused by not exhaling before you began to inhale, resulting in limited lung space for the new breath and then a shortness of breath.  Try exhaling all your air out underwater before turning to breathe.  Take one large breath and then exhale all your air out underwater before breathing again.  With young children practice yo-yo’s where a child hangs onto the edge and ducks underwater to exhale totally then comes up for one breathe and straight back under water.  Do this for a minute or two to get really good at it. 

Breathing correctly is very important in freestyle and we hope these tips help you to improve your breathing.

How to Correct a Short Stroke in Freestyle

How to Correct a Short Stroke in Freestyle


Hi, in freestyle my child has a short stroke both at entry and at the end of the pull. How can this be corrected? Are there drills they can work on?

Thank you Jenny


Hi Jenny,

For swimmers who short stroke at the beginning and end of their stroke I would recommend taking a video of them swimming and letting them view what they look like and see what they are doing wrong. This will assist them to correct it.

The swimmer can watch themselves and then compare themselves with a video of a swimmer doing correct freestyle technique. You can now access an excellent video of the Freestyle Stroke Model with a voice over from former Australian Team Head Coach, Leigh Nugent.

With the hand entry, encourage the swimmer to enter the water at least two thirds of the way forward and extend their hand forward until there is a slight bend remaining and the elbow is in a high position. From this position, they can press with their hand, downwards and slightly outwards at the beginning of the arm pull.

With the back part of their stroke, ask them to brush the outside of their thumb past their thigh on every stroke. By doing this, you are providing them with a reference point that their hands must push back further and their thumb must touch their thigh. They will find this difficult and after a lap or two will need to be reminded to brush their thumb past their thigh.

The swimmer will often complain that it feels like they are going slower because their hand is pushing through further however explain to them that they will actually be moving forward through the water more and once they get good at it, will actually be swimming faster.


In regards to drills, one is to do single arm freestyle with the second arm holding the board at the end and enter the other arm just in front of the board and extend it forward under the board. They can do 25s or 50s with one arm and then swap to the other. This is a teaching drill and provides them with time to practice the correct stroke technique.

If you are a parent of a swimmer and you’re looking for support, direction or advice on your swimming parent journey, check out Swim Parent Advantage, an online resource for swimming parents.